PART SECOND.

GENERAL RULES.

 

118. The instructor will not pass the men to this second part until they shall be well established in the position of the body, and in the manner of marching at the different steps.

 

119. He will then unite four men, whom he will place in the same rank, elbow to elbow, and instruct them in position of shoulder arms, as follows:

LESSON I.

 

Principles of Shoulder Arms.

120. The recruit being placed as explained in the first lesson of the first part, the Instructor will cause him to bend the right arm slightly, and place the piece in it, in the following manner:

 

121. The piece in the right hand—the barrel nearly vertical and resting in the hollow of the shoulder—the guard to the front, the arm hanging nearly at its full length near the body; the thumb, and fore-finger embracing the guard, the remaining fingers closed together, and grasping the swell of the stock just under the cock, which rests on the little finger.

 

122. Recruits are frequently seen with natural defects in the conformation of the shoulders, breast and hips. These the instructor will labor to correct in the lessons without arms, and afterwards, by steady endeavors, so that the appearance of the places, in the same line, may be uniform, and this without constraint to the men in their positions.

 

123. The instructor will have occasion to remark that recruits, on first bearing arms, are liable to derange their position by lowering the right shoulder and the right hand, or by sinking the hip and spreading out the elbows.

 

124. He will be careful to correct all these faults by continually rectifying the position; he will sometimes take away the piece to replace it the better; he will avoid fatiguing the recruits too much in the beginning, but labor by degrees to render this position so natural and easy that they may remain in it a long time without fatigue.

 

125. Finally, the instructor will take great care that the piece, at a shoulder, be not carried too high nor too low; if too high, the right elbow would spread out, the soldier would occupy too much space in his rank, and the piece be made to waver; if too low, the files would be too much closed, the soldier not have the necessary space to handle his piece with facility, the right arm would become too much fatigued, and would draw down the shoulder.

 

126. The instructor, before passing to the second lesson, will cause to be repeated the movements of eyes right, left, and front, and the facings.

 

Lesson II.

Manual of Arms.

 

127. The manual of arms will be taught to four men, placed, at first, in one rank; elbow to elbow, and afterwards in two ranks.

 

128. Each command will be executed in one time (or pause), but this time will be divided into motions, the better to make known the mechanism.

 

129. The rate (or swiftness) of each motion, in the manual of arms, with the exceptions herein indicated, is fixed at the ninetieth part of a minute; but, in order not to fatigue the attention, the instructor will, at first, look more particularly to the execution of the motions, without requiring a nice observance of the cadence, to which he will bring the recruits progressively, and after they shall have become a little familiarized with the handling of the piece.

 

130. As the motions relative to the cartridge, to the rammer and to the fixing and unfixing of the bayonet, cannot be executed at the rate prescribed, nor even with a uniform swiftness, they will not be subjected to that cadence. The instructor will, however labor to cause these motions to be executed with promptness, and above all, with regularity.

 

131. The last syllable of the command will decide the brisk execution of the first motion of each time (or pause). The commands two, three, and four, will decide the brisk execution of the other motions. As soon is the recruits shall well comprehend the positions of the several motions of a time, they will be taught to execute the time without resting on its different motions; the mechanism of the time will nevertheless be observed, as well to give a perfect use of the piece, as to avoid the sinking of, or slurring over either of the motions.

 

132. The manual of arms will be taught in the following progression:

The instructor will command:

Support—ARMS.

One time and three motions.

133.  (First motion.) Bring the piece, with the right hand, perpendicularly to the front and between the eyes, the barrel to the rear; seize the piece with the left hand at the lower hand, raise this hand as high as the chin, and seize the piece at the same time with the right hand four inches below the cock.

134. (Second motion.) Turn the piece with the right hand, the barrel to the front; carry the piece to the left shoulder, and pass the fore-arm extended on the breast between the right hand and the cock; support the cock against the left fore-arm, the left hand resting on the right breast.

135. (Third motion.) Drop the right hand by the side.

136. When the instructor may wish to give repose in this position, he will command:

REST.

137. At this command, the recruits will bring up smartly the right hand to the handle of the piece (small of the stock), when they will not be required to preserve silence, or steadiness of position.

138. When the instructor may wish the recruits to pass from this position to that of silence and steadiness, he will command:

1. Attention. 2. SQUAD.

139. At the second word, the recruits will resume the position of the third motion of support arms.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and three motions.

140. (First motion.) Grasp the piece with the right hand under and against the left fore-arm; seize it with the left hand at the lower band, the thumb extended; detach the piece slightly from the shoulder, the left fore-arm along the stock.

141. (Second motion.) Carry the piece vertically to the right shoulder with both hands, the rammer to the front, change the position of the right hand so as to embrace the guard with the thumb and fore-finger, slip the left hand to the height of the shoulder, the fingers extended and joined, the right arm nearly straight.

142. (Third motion.) Drop the right hand quickly by the side.

Present—ARMS

One time and two motions.

143.  (First motion.) With the right hand bring the piece erect before the centre of the body, the rammer to the front; at the same time seize the piece with the left hand half-way between the guide sight and lower band, the thumb extended along the barrel and against the stock, the fore-arm horizontal and resting against the body, the hand as high as the elbow.

144. (Second motion.) Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand below and against the guard.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

145. (First motion.) Bring the piece to the right shoulder, at the same time change the position of the right band so as to embrace the guard with the thumb and fore-finger, slip up the left hand to the height of the shoulder, the fingers extended and joined, the right arm nearly straight.

146. (Second motion.) Drop the left hand quickly by the side.

Order—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

 147. (First motion.) Seize the piece briskly with the left hand near the upper band, and detach it slightly from the shoulder with the right hand; loosen the grasp of the right hand, lower the piece with the left, re-seize the piece with the right band above the lower band, the little finger in rear of the barrel, the butt about four inches from the ground, the right hand supported against the hip, drop the left hand by the side.

148. (Second motion.) Let the piece slip through the right hand to the ground by opening slightly the fingers, and take the position about to be described.

Position of Order Arms.

149.  The hand low, the barrel between the thumb and fore-finger extended along the stock; the other fingers extended and joined; the muzzle about two inches from the right shoulder; the rammer in front; the toe (or beak) of the butt, against, and in a line with, the toe of the right foot, the barrel perpendicular.

150. When the instructor may wish to give repose in this position, he will command:

REST.

151. At this command, the recruits will not be required to preserve silence or steadiness.

152. When the instructor may wish the recruits to pass from this position to that of silence and steadiness, he will command:

1. Attention. 2. SQUAD.

 

153. At the second word, the recruits will resume the position of order arms.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

154. (First motion.) Raise the piece vertically with the right hand to the height of the right breast, and opposite the shoulder, the elbow close to the body; seize the piece with the left hand below the right, and drop quickly the right hand to grasp the piece at the swell of the stock, the thumb and fore-finger embracing the guard; press the piece against the shoulder with the left hand, the right arm nearly straight.

155. (Second motion.) Drop the left hand quickly by the side. 

Load in nine times.

1. LOAD.*

156.  (First motion.) Same as the first position of present arms No. 143.

 (Second motion.) Carry the piece to the left side with the left hand—butt upon the ground—barrel to the front—piece inclined to the right and front resting upon the left thigh, muzzle six inches in front of the centre of the body—right hand grasping the piece just below the upper band, and left hand extended upon the piece.

 (Third motion.) Seize the piece with the left hand at the muzzle and carry the right hand to the cartridge box.

*Whenever the loadings and firing are to be executed, the instructor will cause the cartridge boxes to be brought to the front.

2. Handle—CARTRIDGE.

One time and one motion.

157. Seize the cartridge with the thumb and next two fingers, and place it between the teeth.

3. Tear—CARTRIDGE.

One time and one motion.

158. Tear the paper to the powder, hold the cartridge upright between the thumb and first two fingers, near the top; in this position place it in front of and near the muzzle—the back of the hand to the front.

4. Charge—CARTRIDGE.

One time and one motion.

159. Empty the powder into the barrel; disengage the ball from the paper with the right hand and the thumb and first two fingers of the left; insert it into the bore, the pointed end uppermost, and press it down with the right thumb; seize the head of the rammer with the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand, the other fingers closed, the elbows near the body.

5. Draw—RAMMER.

One time and three motions.

160. (First motion.) Half draw the rammer by extending, the right arm; steady it in this position with the left thumb; seize the rammer between the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand the thumb under and the finger over the rammer; fingers extended, palm of the hand to the front.

161. (Second motion.) Clear the rammer from the pipes by extending the arm; the rammer in prolongation of the pipes, palm of the hand to the front.

162. (Third motion.) Turn the rammer by closing the fingers, the little end passing near the left shoulder, turning the back of the hand to the front; steady it by extending the forefinger of the right hand; place the head of the rammer on the ball, the rammer in prolongation of the barrel.

6. Ram—CARTRIDGE.

One time and one motion.

163. Insert the rammer as far as the right, and steady it in this position with the thumb of the left hand; seize the rammer at the small end with the thumb and fore-finger on the right hand, the back of the hand to the front; press the ball home, the elbows near the body.

7. Return—RAMMER.

One time and three motions.

164 (First motion.) Draw the rammer half—way out, and steady it in this position with the left thumb; grasp it near the muzzle with the right hand, the thumb under and fore-finger above the rammer, the fingers extended; clear the rammer from the bore by extending the arm, the palm to the front, the rammer in the prolongation of the bore.

165. (Second motion.) Turn the rammer, the head passing near the left shoulder, the fingers closed, the rammer held between the thumb and fore-finger, nails to the front; insert the rammer, until the hand reaches the muzzle.

166. (Third motion.) Force the rammer home by placing the little finger of the right hand on the head of the ra

mmer; extend the left hand down the piece without depressing the shoulder.

8. PRIME.*

One time and two motions.

 167. (First motion.) With the left hand raise the piece till the hand is as high as the eye, grasp the small of the stock with the right hand; half face to the right; place, at the same time, the right foot behind and at right angles with the left; the hollow of the right foot against the left heel. Slip the left hand down to the lower band, the thumb along the stock, the left elbow against the body; bring the piece to the right side, the butt below the right fore-arm—the small of the stock against the body and two inches below the right breast, the barrel upwards, the muzzle on a level with the eye.

* If Maynard’s primer be used, the command will be, load in eight times, and the eighth command will be, shoulder arms, and executed from return rammer, in one time and two motions, as follows:


(First motion.) Raise the piece with the left hand, and take the position of shoulder arms, as indicated No. 145.


(Second motion.) Drop the left hand quickly by the side.

168. (Second motion.) Half cock with the thumb of the right hand the fingers supported against the guard and the small of the stock—remove the old cap with one of the fingers of the right band, and with the thumb and fore-finger of the same hand take a cap from the pouch, place it on the nipple and press it down with the thumb; seize the small of the stock with the right hand.

9. Shoulder—ARMS

One time and two motions.

169. (First motion.) Bring the piece. to the right, shoulder and support it there with the left hand, face to the front; bring the right heel to the side of and on a line with the left; grasp the piece with the right hand as indicated in the position of shoulder arms.

170. (Second motion.) Drop the left hand quickly by the side.

READY.

One time and three motions.

171.  (First motion.) Raise the piece slightly with the right hand, making a half face to the right on the left heel; carry the right foot to the rear, and place it at right angles to the left, the hollow of it opposite to, and against the left heel; grasp the piece with the left hand at the lower band and detach it slightly from the shoulder.

172. (Second motion.) Bring down the piece with both hands, the barrel upwards, the left thumb extended along the stock the butt below the right fore-arm, the small of the stock against the body and two inches below the right breast, the muzzle as high as the eye, the left elbow against the side; place at the same time the right thumb on the head of the cock, the other fingers under and against the guard.

173. (Third motion.) Cock, and seize the piece at the small of the stock without deranging the position of the butt.

AIM.

One time and one motion.

174.  Raise the piece with both hands, and support the butt against the right shoulder; the left elbow down, the right as high as the shoulder; incline the head upon the butt, so that the right eye may perceive quickly the notch of the hausse, the front sight, and the object aimed at; the left eye closed, the right thumb extended along the stock, the fore-finger on the trigger.

175. When recruits are formed in two ranks to execute the firings, the front rank men will raise a little less the right elbow, in order to facilitate the aim of the rear rank men.

176. The rear rank men, in aiming, will each carry the right foot about eight inches to the right, and towards the left heel of the man next on the right, inclining the upper part of the body forward.

FIRE.

One time and one motion.

177.  Press the fore-finger against the trigger, fire, without lowering or turning the head, and remain in this position.

178. Instructors will be careful to observe when the men fire, that they aim at some distinct object, and that the barrel be so directed that the line of fire and the line of sight be in the same vertical plane. They will often cause the firing to be executed on ground of different inclinations, in order to accustom the men to fire at objects either above or below them.

LOAD.

One time and one motion.

179. Bring down the piece with both hands, at the same time face to the front and take the position of load as indicated No. 156. Each rear rank man will bring his right foot by the side of the left.

180. The men being in this position, the instructor will cause the loading to be continued by the commands and means prescribed, No. 156 and following.

181. If, after firing, the instructor should not wish the recruits to reload, he will command:

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and one motion.

182. Throw up the piece briskly with the left hand and resume the position of shoulder arms, at the same time face to the front, turning on the left heel, and bring the right heel on a line with the left.

183. To accustom the recruits to wait for the command, fire, the instructor, when they are in the position of aim, will command:

Recover—ARMS.

One time and one motion.

184. At the first part of the command, withdraw the finger from the trigger; at the command, arms, retake the position of the third motion of ready.

185. The recruits being in the position of the third motion of ready, if the instructor should wish to bring them to it shoulder, he will command:

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and one motion.

186. At the command, shoulder, place the thumb upon the cock, the fore-finger on the trigger, half-cock, and seize the small of the stock with the right hand. At the command, arms, bring up the piece briskly to the right shoulder, and retake the position of shoulder arms.

187. The recruits being at shoulder arms, when the instructor shall wish to fix bayonets, he will command: 

Fix—BAYONET.

One time and four motions.

188.  (First, second, and third motions.) Same as in first, second, and third motions in the first time of loading, except in the third motion, the right hand is carried to the bayonet, grasping it, with the little finger up.

189. (Fourth motion.) Draw the bayonet from the scabbard, fix it, seize the piece with the right hand at the muzzle, the left hand resting on the barrel, arm extended.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

190. (First motion.) Raise the piece with the left hand and place it against the right shoulder, the rammer to the front; seize the piece at the same time with the right hand at the swell of the stock, the thumb and fore-finger embracing the guard, the right arm nearly extended.

191. (Second motion.) Drop briskly the left hand by the side.

192. The recruits being at ordered arms, if the instructor should wish to fix bayonets, he will give the command:

Fix Bayonets,

when the pieces will be brought to the left side at one motion, and held as prescribed in No. 188. At the second motion, the bayonets will be fixed as in No. 189; immediately resume the position of shoulder arms.

Charge—BAYONET.

One time and two motions.

193.  (First motion.) Raise the piece slightly with the right hand and make a half face to the right on the left heel; place the hollow of the right foot opposite to, and three inches from the left heel, the feet square; seize the piece at the same time with the left hand a little above the lower band.

194. (Second motion.) Bring down the piece with both hands, the barrel uppermost, the left elbow against the body; seize the small of the stock, at the same time, with the right hand, which will be supported against the hip; the point of the bayonet as high as the eye.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

195. (First motion.) Throw up the piece briskly with the left hand in facing to the front, place it against the right shoulder, the rammer to the front; turn the right hand so as to embrace the guard, slide the left band to the height of the shoulder, the right hand nearly extended.

196. (Second motion.) Drop the left hand smartly by the side.

Trail—ARMS

One time and two motions.

197.  (First motion.) The same as the first motion of order arms.

198. (Second motion.) Incline the muzzle slightly to the front, the butt to the rear and about four inches from the ground. The right hand supported at the hip, will so hold the piece that the rear rank men may not touch with their bayonets the men in the front rank.

Shoulder—ARMS.

199. At the command, shoulder, raise the piece perpendicularly in the right hand, the little finger in rear of the barrel; at the command, arms, execute what has been prescribed for the shoulder from the position of order arms.

Unfix—BAYONET.

One time and four motions.

200.  (First and second motions.) Same as in fix bayonet.

201. (Third motion.) Same as in fix bayonet, except turn the bayonet clasp with the right thumb, grasp the shank of the bayonet with the right hand, palms under thumb and fingers extended well at the blade of the bayonet.

202. (Fourth motion.) Wrench off the bayonet, return it to the scabbard, grasp the piece at the upper band with the right hand, lower the left hand along the barrel, the arm extended without depressing the shoulder.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

203. (First and second motions.) The same as from fix bayonet, Nos. 190 and 191.

Secure—ARMS.

One time and three motions.

204.  (First motion.) The same as the first motion of support arms, No. 133, except with the right hand seize the piece at the small of the stock.

205. (Second motion.) Turn the piece with both hands, the barrel to the front; bring it opposite the left shoulder, the butt against the hip, the left hand at the lower band, the thumb as high as the chin and extended on the rammer; the piece erect and detached from the shoulder, the left fore-arm against the piece.

206. (Third motion.) Reverse the piece, pass it under the left arm, the left hand remaining at the lower band, the thumb on the rammer to prevent it from sliding out, the little finger resting against the hip, the right hand falling at the same time by the side.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and three motions.

207. (First motion.) Raise the piece with the left band, and seize it with the right hand at the small of the stock. The piece erect and detached from the shoulder, the butt against the hip, the left fore-arm along the piece.

208. (Second motion.) The same as the second motion of shoulder arms from a support.

209. (Third motion.) The same as the third motion of shoulder arms from a support.

Right shoulder shift—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

210.  (First motion.) Detach the piece perpendicularly from the shoulder with the right band, and seize it with the left between the lower band and guide-sight, raise the piece, the left hand at the height of the shoulder and four inches from it; place, at the same time, the right hand on the butt, the beak between the first two fingers, the other two fingers under the butt plate.

211. (Second motion.) Quit the piece with the left hand, raise and place the piece on the right shoulder with the right hand the lock plate upwards; let fall, at the same time, the left hand by the side.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

212. (First motion.) Raise the piece perpendicularly by extending the right arm to its full length, the rammer to the front, at the same time seize the piece with the left hand between the lower band and guide-sight.

213. (Second motion.) Quit the butt with the right hand, which will immediately embrace the guard, lower the piece to position of shoulder arms, slide up the left hand to the height of the shoulder, the fingers extended and closed. Drop the left hand by the side.

214. The men being at support arms, the instructor will sometimes cause pieces to be brought to the right shoulder. To this effect, he will command:

Right Shoulder shift—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

215. (First motion.) Seize the piece with the right hand, below and near the left fore-arm, place the left hand under the butt, the heel of the butt between the first two fingers.

216. (Second motion.) Turn the piece with the left hand the lock-plate upwards, carry it to the right shoulder, the left hand still holding the butt, the muzzle elevated; hold the piece in this position and place the right hand upon the butt as is prescribed, No. 210, and let fall the left hand by the side.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

217. (First motion.) The same as the first motion of shoulder arms, No. 212.

218. (Second motion.) Turn the piece with both hands, the barrel to the front, carry it opposite the left shoulder, slip the right hand to the small of the stock, place the left fore-arm extended on the breast as is prescribed, No. 134, and let fall the right hand by the side.

Arms—AT WILL.

One time and one motion.

219.  At this command, carry the piece at pleasure on either shoulder, with one or both bands, the muzzle elevated.

Support—ARMS.

One time and one motion.

220. At this command, retake quickly the position of shoulder arms.

221. The recruits being at ordered arms, when the instructor shall wish to cause the pieces to be placed on the ground, he will command:

Ground—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

222.  (First motion.) Turn the piece with the right hand, the barrel to the left, at the same time seize the cartridge box with the left hand, bend the body, advance the left foot, the heel opposite the lower band; lay the piece on the ground with the right hand, the toe of the butt on a line with the right toe, the knees slightly bent, the right heel raised.

223. (Second motion.) Rise up, bring the left foot by the side of the right, quit the cartridge box with the left hand, and drop the hands by the side.

Raise—ARMS.

One time and two motions.

224. (First motion.) Seize the cartridge box with the left hand, bend the body, advance the left foot opposite the lower band, and seize the piece with the right hand.

225. (Second motion.) Raise the piece, bringing the left foot by the side of the right; turn the piece with the right hand, the rammer to the front; at the same time quit the cartridge box with the left hand, and drop this hand by the side.

226. The recruits being at ordered arms, with the bayonet in the scabbard, if the instructor wishes to cause an inspection of arms he will command:

Inspection—ARMS.

One time and four motions.

 (First and second motions.) Same as in fix bayonet, No. 192, except that the left hand remains at the muzzle, and the rammer head is seized between the thumb and fore-finger, as in draw rammer.

227.  (Third motion.) Spring rammer as prescribed in loading; lower the left hand along the piece to full extent of arm, grasping the piece at the muzzle-band with the right hand.

228. (Fourth motion.) Bring the piece to position of shoulder arms.

229. The instructor will then inspect in succession the piece of each recruit, in passing along the front of the rank. Each, as the instructor reaches him, will raise smartly his piece with his right hand, seize it with the left between the lower band and guide-sight, the lock to the front, the left hand at the height of the chin, the piece opposite to the left eye; the instructor will take it with the right hand at the handle, and, after inspecting it, will return it to the recruit, who will receive it back with the right hand, and replace it in the position of ordered arms.

230. When the instructor shall have passed him, each recruit will retake the position proscribed at the command, inspection arms, return the rammer, and resume the position of ordered arms.

231. If, instead of inspection of arms, the instructor should merely wish to cause bayonets to be fixed, he will command:

Fix—BAYONETS.

232. Take the position indicated in No. 192, fix bayonets as has been explained, and immediately resume the position of ordered arms.

233. If it be the wish of the instructor, after firing, to ascertain whether the pieces have been discharged, he will command:

Spring—RAMMERS.

234. Put the rammer in the barrel as has been explained above, and immediately retake the position of ordered arms.

235. The instructor, for the purpose stated, can take the rammer by the small end, and spring it in the barrel, or cause each recruit to make it ring in the barrel.

236. Each recruit, after the instructor passes him, will return rammer and resume the position of ordered arms.

Remarks on the Manual of Arms.

237.  The manual of arms frequently distorts the persons of recruits before they acquire case and confidence in the several positions. The instructor will therefore frequently recur to elementary principles in the course of the lessons.

238. Recruits are also extremely liable to curve the sides and back, and to derange the shoulders, especially in loading. Consequently the instructor will not cause them to dwell too long, at a time in one position.

239. When, after some days of exercise in the manual of arms, the four men shall be well established in their use, the instructor will always terminate the lesson by marching the men for some time in one rank, and at one pace apart, in common and quick time, in order to confirm them more and more in the mechanism of the step; he will also teach them to mark time and to change step; which will be executed in the following manner:

To Mark Time.

240. The four men marching in the direct step, the instructor will command:

1. Mark time. 2. MARCH.

241.  At the second command, which will be given at the instant a foot is coming to the ground, the recruits will make a semblance of marching, by bringing the heels by the side of each other, and observing the cadence of the step, by raising each foot alternately without advancing.

242. The instructor wishing the direct step to be resumed will command:

1. Forward. 2. MARCH.

243. At the second command, which will be given as prescribed above, the recruits will retake the step of twenty-eight inches.

To change step.

244. The squad being in march, the instructor will command:

1. Change step. 2. MARCH.

245.  At the second command, which will be given at the instant either foot is coming to the ground, bring the foot which is in rear by the side of that which is in front, and step off again with the foot which was in front.

To march backwards.

246. The instructor wishing the squad to march backwards, will command:

1. Squad backward. 2. MARCH.

247.  At the second command, the recruits will stop off smartly with the left foot fourteen inches to the rear, reckoning from heel to heel, and so on with the feet in succession till the command, halt, which will always be preceded by the caution, squad. The men will halt at this command, and bring back the foot in front by the side of the other.

248. This step will always be executed in quick time.

249. The instructor will be watchful that the recruits march straight to the rear, and that the erect position of the body and the piece be not deranged.

LESSON III.

To load in four times.

250.  The object of this lesson is to prepare the recruits to load at will, and to cause them to distinguish the times which require the greatest regularity and attention, such as charge cartridge, ram cartridge and prime. It will be divided as follows:

251. The first time will be executed at the end of the command; the three others at the commands, two, three and four. The instructor will command:

1. Load in four times. 2. LOAD.

252. Execute the times to include to charge cartridge.

TWO.

253. Execute the times to include ram cartridge.

THREE.

254. Execute the times to include prime.

FOUR.

255. Execute the time of shoulder arms.

To load at will.

256. The instructor will next teach loading at will, which will be executed as loading in four times, but continued, and without resting on either of the times. He will command:

1. Load at will. 2. LOAD.

257.  The instructor will habituate the recruits, by degrees, to load with the greatest possible promptitude, each without regulating himself by his neighbor, and above all without waiting for him.

258. The cadence prescribed, No. 129, is not applicable to loading in four times, or at will.

LESSON IV

Firings.

259. The firings are direct or oblique, and will be executed as follows:

The direct fire.

260. The instructor will give the following commands:

1. Fire by squad. 2. Squad. 3. READY. 4. AIM. 5. FIRE. 6. LOAD.

261.  These, several commands will be executed as has been proscribed in the Manual of Arms. At the third command, the men will come to the position of ready as heretofore explained. At the fourth they will aim according to the rank in which each may find himself placed, the rear rank men inclining forward a little the upper part of the body, in order that their pieces may reach as much beyond the front rank as possible.

262. At the sixth command, they will load their pieces and return immediately to the position of ready.

263. The instructor will recommence the firing by the command:

1. Squad. 2. AIM. 3. FIRE. 4. LOAD.

264. When the instructor wishes the firing to cease he will command:

Cease firing.

265. At this command, the men will cease firing but will load their pieces if unloaded, and afterwards bring them to a shoulder.

Oblique firing.

266.  The oblique firings will be executed to the right and left, and by the same commands as the direct fire, with this single difference—the command, aim, will always be preceded by the caution, right or left oblique.

Position of the two ranks in the oblique fire to the right.

267.  At the command, ready, the two ranks will execute what has been prescribed for the direct fire.

268. At the cautionary command, right oblique, the two ranks will throw back the right shoulder and look steadily at the object to be hit.

269. At the command, aim, each front rank man will aim to the right without deranging the feet; each rear rank man will advance the left foot about eight inches toward the right heel of the man next on the right of his file leader and aim to the right, inclining the upper part of the body forward and bending a little the left knee.

 

Position of the two ranks in the oblique fire to the left.


 

270.  At the cautionary command, left oblique, the two ranks will throw back the left shoulder and look steadily at the object to be hit.

271. At the command, aim, the front rank will take aim to the left without deranging the feet; each man in the rear will advance the right foot about eight inches toward the right heel of the man next on the right of his file leader, and aim to the left, inclining the upper part of the body forward and bending a little the right knee.

272. In both cases, at the command, load, the men of each rank will come to the position of load as prescribed in the direct fire; the rear rank men bringing back the foot which is to the right and front by the side of the other. Each man will continue to load as if isolated.

To fire by file.

273. The fire by file will be executed by the two ranks, the files of which will fire successively, and without regulating on each other, except for the first fire.

274. The instructor will command:

1. Fire by file. 2. Squad. 3. READY. 4. COMMENCE FIRING.

275.  At the third command, the two ranks will take the position prescribed in the direct fire.

276. At the fourth command, the file on the right will aim and fire; the rear rank man in aiming will take the position indicated No. 176.

277. The men of this file will load their pieces briskly and fire a second time; reload and fire again, and so on in continuation.

278. The second file will aim at the instant the first brings down pieces to reload, and will conform in all respects to that which has just been prescribed for the first file.

279. After the first fire, the front and rear rank men will not be required to fire at the same time

280. Each man, after loading, will return to the position of ready, and continue the fire.

281. When the instructor wishes the fire to cease, he will command:

Cease—FIRING.

282. At this command, the men will cease firing. If they have fired they will load their pieces and bring them to a shoulder; if at the position of ready, they will half-cock and shoulder arms. If in position of aim, they will bring down their pieces, half-cock, and shoulder arms.

To fire by rank.

283. The fire by rank will be executed by each entire rank, alternately.

284. The instructor will command:

1. Fire by rank. 2. Squad. 3. READY. 4. Rear rank. 5. AIM. 6. FIRE. 7. LOAD.

285.  At the third command, the two ranks will take the position of ready, as prescribed in the direct fire.

286. At the seventh command, the rear rank will execute that which has been prescribed in the direct fire, and afterwards take the position of ready.

287. As soon as the instructor sees several men of the rear rank in the position of ready, he will command:

1. Front Rank. 2. AIM. 3. FIRE. 4. LOAD.

288. At these commands, the men in the front rank will execute what has been prescribed for the rear rank, but they will not step off with right foot.

289. The instructor will recommence the firing by the rear rank, and will thus continue to alternate from rank to rank, until he shall wish the firing to cease, when he will command,

 cease firing,

which will be executed as heretofore prescribed.

LESSON V.

To fire and load kneeling.

290. In this exercise the squad will be supposed loaded and drawn up in one rank. The instruction will be given to each man individually, without times or motions, and in the following manner.

291. The instructor will command:

FIRE AND LOAD KNEELING.

292.  At this command, the man on the right of the squad will move forward three paces and halt; then carry the right foot to the rear and to the right of the left heel, and in a position convenient for placing the right knee upon the ground in bending the left log; place the right knee upon the ground; lower the piece, the left fore-arm supported upon the thigh on the same side, the right hand on the small of the stock, the butt resting on the right thigh, the left hand supporting the piece near the lower band.

293. He will next move the right leg to the left around the knee supported on the ground, until this leg is nearly perpendicular to the direction of the left foot, and thus seat himself, comfortably on the right heel.

294. Raise the piece with the right hand and support it with the left, holding it near the lower band, the left elbow resting on the left thigh near the knee; seize the hammer with the thumb, the fore-finger under the guard, cock and seize the piece at the small of the stock; bring the piece to the shoulder, aim and fire.

295. Bring the piece down as soon as it is fired, and support it with the left hand, the butt resting against the right thigh; carry the piece to the rear rising on the knee, the barrel downwards, the butt resting on the ground; in this position support the piece with the left hand at the upper band, draw cartridge with the right and load the piece, ramming the ball, if necessary, with both hands.

296. When loaded bring the piece to the front with the left hand, which holds it at the upper band; seize it at the same time with the right hand at the small of the stock; turn the piece, the barrel uppermost and nearly horizontal, the left elbow resting on the left thigh; half-cock, remove the old cap and prime, rise, and return to the ranks.

297. The second man will then be taught what has just been prescribed for the first, and so on through the remainder of the squad.

Fire and load lying.

298. In this exercise the squad will be in one rank and loaded; the instruction will be given individually and without times or motions.

299. The instructor will command:

FIRE AND LOAD LYING.

300.  At this command, the man on the right of the squad will move forward three paces and halt; he will then bring his piece to an order, drop on both knees, and place himself on the ground flat on his belly. In this position he will support the piece nearly horizontal with the left hand, holding it near the lower band, the butt end of the piece and the left elbow resting on the ground, the barrel uppermost; cock the piece with the right hand, and carry this hand to the small of the stock; raise the piece with both hands, press the butt against the shoulder, and resting on both elbows, aim and fire.

301. As soon as he has fired, bring the piece down and turn upon his left side, still resting on his left elbow; bring back the piece until the cock is opposite his breast, the butt end resting on the ground; take out a cartridge with the right hand; seize the small of the stock with this hand, holding the cartridge with the thumb and two first fingers; he will then throw himself on his back still holding the piece with both hands; carry the piece to the rear, place the butt between the heels, the barrel up, the muzzle elevated. In this position, charge cartridge draw rammer, ram cartridge, and return rammer.

302. When finished loading, the man will turn again upon his left side, remove the old cap and prime, then raise the piece vertically, rise, turn about, and resume his position in the ranks.

303. The second man will be taught what has just been prescribed for the first, and so on throughout the squad.

LESSON VI.

Bayonet Exercise.

304.  The bayonet exercise in this book will be confined to two movements, the guard against infantry, and the guard against cavalry. The men will be placed in one rank, with two paces interval, and being at shoulder arms, the instructor will command:

1. Guard against Infantry. 2. GUARD.

One time and two motions.

305. (First motion.) Make a half face to the right turning on both heels, the feet square to each other; at the same time raise the piece slightly, and seize it with the left hand above and near the lower band.

306. (Second motion.) Carry the right foot twenty inches perpendicularly to the rear, the right heel on the prolongation of the left, the knees slightly bent, the weight of the body resting equally on both legs; lower the piece with both hands, the barrel uppermost, the left elbow against the body; seize the piece at the same time with the right hand at the small of the stock, the arms falling naturally, the point of the bayonet slightly elevated.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and one motion.

307. Throw up the piece with the left band, and place it against the right shoulder, at the same time bring the right heel by the side of the left and face to the front.

1. Guard against Cavalry. 2. GUARD.

One time and two motions.

308. Both motions the same as for guard against infantry, except that the right hand will be supported against the hip, and the bayonet held at the height of the eye, as in charge bayonet.

Shoulder—ARMS.

One time and one motion.

309. Spring up the piece with the left hand and place it against the right shoulder, at the same time bring the right heel by the side of the left, and face to the front.

Last Update: 8/12/2019                                13th Virginia Infantry,  Company I has no political affiliation or agenda.