310. When the recruits are well established in the principles and mechanism of the step, the position of the body, and the manual of arms, the instructor will unite eight men, at least, and twelve men, at most, in order to teach them the principles of alignment, the principles of the touch of elbows in marching to the front, the principles of the march by the flank, wheeling from a halt, wheeling in marching, and the change of direction to the side of the guide. He will place the squad in one rank elbow to elbow, and number the men from right to left.
311. The instructor will at first teach the recruits to align themselves man by man, in order the better to make them comprehend the principles of alignment; to this end, he will command the two men on the right flank to march two paces to the front, and having aligned them, he will caution the remainder of the squad to move up, as they may be successively called each by his number, and align themselves successively on the line of the first two men.
312. Each recruit, as designated by his number, will turn the head and eyes to the right as proscribed in the first lesson of the first part, and will march in quick time two paces forward, shortening the last, so as to find himself about six inches behind the new alignment, which he ought never to pass; he will next move up steadily by steps of two or three inches, the hams extended, to the side of the man next to him on the alignment, so that, without deranging the head, the line of the eyes, or that of the shoulders, he may find himself in the exact line of his neighbor, whose elbow he will lightly touch without opening his own.
313. The instructor seeing the rank well aligned, will command:
314. At this, the recruits will turn eyes to the front, and remain firm.
315. Alignments to the left will be executed on the same principles.
316. When the recruit shall have thus learned to align themselves man by man, correctly, and without groping or jostling, the instructor will cause the entire rank to align itself at once by the command:
Right (or left)—DRESS.
317. At this, the rank, except the two men placed in advance as, a basis of alignment, will move up in quick time, and place themselves on the new line, according to the principles prescribed, No. 312.
318. The instructor, placed five or six paces in front, and facing the rank, will carefully observe that the principles are followed, and then pass to the flank that has served as the basis, to verify the alignment.
319. The instructor seeing the greater number of the rank well aligned, will command:
320. The instructor may afterwards order this or that file forward or back, designating each by its number. The file or files designated, only, will slightly turn the head towards the basis, to judge how much they ought to move up or back, steadily place themselves on the line, and then turn eyes to the front, without a particular command to that effect.
321. Alignments to the rear will be executed on the same principles, the recruits stopping back a little beyond the line, and then dressing up according to the principles prescribed, No. 312, the instructor commanding:
Right (or left) backward—DRESS.
322. After each alignment, the instructor will examine the position of the men, and cause the rank to come to ordered arms, to prevent too much fatigue, and also the danger of negligence at shouldered arms.
323. The men having learned, in the first and second parts, to march with steadiness in common time, and to take steps equal in length and swiftness, will be exercised in the third part only in quick time, double quick time, and the run; the instructor will cause them to execute successively, at these different gaits, the march to the front, the facing about in marching, the march by the flank, the wheels at a halt and in marching, and the changes of direction to the side of the guide.
324. The instructor will inform the recruits that at the command, march, they will always move off in quick time, unless this command should be preceded by that of double quick.
To march to the front.
325. The rank being correctly aligned, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march by the front, he will place a well instructed man on the right or the left, according to the side on which he may wish the guide to be, and command:
1. Squad, forward. 2. Guide right (or left.) 3. MARCH.
326. At the command, march, the rank will step off smartly with the left foot; the guide will take care to march straight to the front, keeping the shoulders always in a square with that line.
327. The instructor will observe, in marching to the front, that the men touch lightly the elbow towards the side of the guide; that they do not open out the left elbow, nor the right arm; that they yield to pressure coming from the side of the aide, and resist that coming from the opposite side; that they recover by insensible degrees the slight touch of the elbow, if lost; that they maintain the head direct to the front, no matter on which side the guide may be; and if found before or behind the alignment, that the man in fault corrects himself by shortening or lengthening the step, by degrees, almost insensible.
328. The instructor will labor to cause recruits to comprehend that the alignment can only be preserved, in marching, by the regularity of the step, the touch of the elbow, and the maintenance of the shoulders in a square with the line of direction; that if, for example, the step of some be longer than that of others, or if some march faster than others, a separation of elbows, and a loss of the alignment, would be inevitable; that if (it being required that the head should be direct to the front) they do not strictly observe the touch of elbows, it would be impossible for an individual to judge whether he marches abreast with his neighbor, or not, and whether there be not an interval between them.
329. The impulsion of the quick step having a tendency to make men too easy and free in their movements, the instructor will be careful to regulate the cadence of this step, and to habituate them to preserve always the erectness of the body, and the due length of the pace.
330. The men being well established in the principles of the direct march, the instructor will exercise them in marching obliquely. The rank being in march, the instructor will command:
1. Right (or left) oblique. 2. MARCH.
331. At the second command, each man will make a half face to the right (or left), and will then march straight forward in the new direction. As the men no longer touch elbows, they will glance along the shoulders of the nearest files towards the side to which they are obliquing, and will regulate their steps so that the shoulders shall always be behind that of their next neighbor on that side, and that his head shall conceal the heads of the other men in the rank. Besides this, the men should preserve the same length of pace, and the same degree of obliquity.
332. The instructor, wishing to resume the primitive direction, will command:
1. Forward. 2. MARCH.
333. At the second command, each man will make a half face to the left (or right), and all will then march straight to the front, conforming to the principles of the direct march.
To march to the front in double quick time.
334. When the several principles, heretofore explained, have become familiar to the recruits, and they shall be well established in the position of the body, the bearing of arms, and the mechanism, length, and swiftness of the step, the instructor will pass them from quick to double quick time, and the reverse observing not to make them march obliquely in double quick time, till they are well established in the cadence of this step.
335. The squad being at a march in quick time, the instructor will command:
1. Double quick. 2. MARCH.
336. At the command, march, which will be given when either foot is coming to the ground, the squad will step off in double quick time. The men will endeavor to follow the principles laid down in the first part of this book, and to preserve the alignment.
337. When the instructor wishes the squad to resume the step in quick time, he will command:
1. Quick time. 2. MARCH.
338. At the command, march, which will be given when either foot is coming to the ground, the squad will retake the step in quick time.
339. The squad being in march, the instructor will halt it by the commands and means prescribed, Nos. 98 and 99. The command, halt, will be given an instant before the foot is ready to be placed on the ground.
340. The squad being in march in double quick time, the instructor will occasionally cause it to mark time by the commands prescribed, No. 240. The men will then mark double quick time, without altering the cadence of the step. He will also cause them to pass from the direct to the oblique step, and reciprocally, conforming to what has been prescribed, No. 330, and following.
341. The squad being at a halt, the instructor will cause it to march in double quick time, by preceding the command, march, by double quick.
342. The instructor will endeavor to regulate well the cadence of this step.
To face about in marching.
343. If the squad be marching in quick, or double quick time, and the instructor should wish to march it in retreat, he will command:
1. Squad, right about. 2. MARCH.
344. At the command, march, which will be given at the instant the left foot is coming to the ground, the recruit will bring this foot to the ground, and turning on it, will face to the rear; he will then place the right foot in the new direction, and step off with the left foot.
To march backwards.
345. The squad being at a halt, if the instructor should wish to march it in the back step, he will command:
1. Squad backward. 2. Guide left (or right). 3. MARCH.
346. The back step will be executed by the means prescribed, No. 247.
347. The instructor, in this step, will be watchful that the men do not lean on each other.
348. As the march to the front in quick time should only be executed at shouldered arms, the instructor, in order not to fatigue the men too much, and also to prevent negligence in gait and position, will halt the squad from time to time, and cause arms to be ordered.
349. In marching at double quick time, the men will always carry their pieces on the right shoulder or at a trail. This rule is general.
350. If the instructor shall wish the pieces carried at a trail, he will give the command, trail arms, before the command, double quick. If, on the contrary, this command be not given, the men will shift their pieces to the right shoulder at the command, double quick. In either case, at the command, halt, the men will bring their pieces to the position of shoulder arms. This rule is general.
The march by the flank.
351. The rank being at a halt, and correctly aligned, the instructor will command:
1. Squad, right—FACE. 2. Forward. 3. MARCH.
352. At the last part of the first command, the rank will face to the right; the even numbered men, after facing to the right, will step quickly to the right side of the odd numbered men, the latter standing fast, so that when the movement is executed, the men will be formed into files of two men abreast.
353. At the third command, the squad will step off smartly with the left foot; the files keeping aligned, and preserving their intervals.
354. The march by the left flank will be executed by the same commands, substituting the word, left for right, and by inverse means; in this case, the even numbered men, after facing to the left, will stand fast, and the odd numbered will place themselves on their left.
355. The instructor will place a well-instructed soldier by the side of the recruit who is at the head of the rank, to regulate the step, and to conduct him; and it will be enjoined on this recruit to march always elbow to elbow with the soldier.
356. The instructor will cause to be observed in the march, by the flank, the following rules:
That the step be executed according to the principles prescribed for the direct step;
Because these principles, without which men, placed elbow to elbow, in the same rank, cannot preserve unity and harmony of movement, are of a more necessary observance in marching in file.
That the head of the man who immediately precedes, covers the heads of all who are in front;
Because it is the most certain rule by which each man may maintain himself in the exact line of the file.
357. The instructor will place himself habitually five or six paces on the flank of the rank marching in file, to watch over the execution of the principles prescribed above. He will also place himself sometimes in its rear, halt, and suffer it to pass fifteen or twenty paces, the better to see whether the men cover each other accurately.
358. When he shall wish to halt the rank, marching by the flank, and to cause it to face to the front, he will command:
1. Squad. 2. HALT. 3. FRONT.
359. At the second command, the rank will halt, and afterwards no man will stir, although he may have lost his distance. This prohibition is necessary, to habituate the men to a constant preservation of their distances.
360. At the third command, each man will front by facing to the left, if marching by the right flank, and by a face to the right, if marching by the left flank. The rear rank men will at the same time move quickly into their places, so as to form the squad again into one rank.
361. When the men have become accustomed to marching by the flank, the instructor will cause them to change direction by file for this purpose, he will command:
1. By file left (or right). 2. MARCH.
362. At the command, march, the first file will change direction to the left (or right) in describing a small arc of a circle, and will then march straight forward; the two men of this file, in wheeling, will keep up the touch of the elbows, and the man on the side to which the wheel is made, will shorten the first three or four steps. Each file will come successively to wheel on the same spot where that which preceded it wheeled.
363. The instructor will also cause the squad to face by the right or left flank in marching, and for this purpose will command:
1. Squad by the right (or left) flank. 2. MARCH.
364. At the second command, which will be given a little before either foot comes to the ground, the recruits will turn the body, plant the foot that is raised in the new direction, and step off with the other foot without altering the cadence of the step; the men will double or undouble rapidly.
365. If, in facing by the right or left flank, the squad should face to the rear, the men will, come into one rank, agreeably to the principles indicated No. 360. It is to be remarked that it is the men who are in rear who always move up to form into single rank and in such manner as never to invert the order of the numbers in the rank.
366. If, when the squad has been faced to the rear, the instructor should cause, it to face by the left flank, it is the even numbers who will double by moving to the right of the odd numbers; but if by the right flank, it is the odd numbers who will double to the left of the even numbers.
Observe the two following rules in the facings, viz:
1. Never gain ground to the front in doubling.
2. Never reverse the order of the numbers in undoubling.
The front referred to, is the original or real front. The numbers would be reversed, if in counting, beginning on the right of the company, number two should call before number one. These rules apply to all facings, whether the company be marching or at a halt.
367. This lesson, like the preceding one, will be practiced with pieces at a shoulder; but the instructor may, to give relief by change, occasionally order, support arms, and he will require of the recruits marching in this position, as much regularity as in the former.
The march by the flank in double quick time.
368. The principles of the march by the flank in double quick time, are the same as in quick time. The instructor will give the commands prescribed, No. 351, taking care always to give the command, double quick, before that of, march.
369. He will pay the greatest attention to the cadence of the step.
370. The instructor will cause the change of direction, and the march by the flank, to be executed in double quick time, by the same commands, and according to the same principles as in quick time.
371. The instructor will cause the pieces to be carried either on the right shoulder or at a trail.
372. The instructor will sometimes march the squad by the flank, without doubling the files.
373. The principles of this march are the same as in two ranks, and it will always be executed in quick time.
374. The instructor will give the commands prescribed, No. 351, but he will be careful to caution the squad not to double files.
375. The instructor will be watchful that the men do not bend their knees unequally, which would cause them to tread on the heels of the men in front, and also to lose the cadence of the step and their distances.
376. The various movements in this lesson will be executed in single rank. In the changes of direction, the leading man will change direction without altering the length or the cadence of the step. The instructor will recall to the attention of the men, that in facing by the right or left flank in marching, they will not double, but march in one rank.
General Principles of Wheeling.
377. Wheelings are of two kinds: from halts, or on fixed pivots, and in march or on moveable pivots.
378. Wheeling on a fixed pivot takes place in passing a corps from the order in battle to the order in column, or from the latter to the former.
379. Wheels in marching take place in changes of direction in column, as often as this movement is executed to the side opposite to the guide.
380. In wheels from a halt, the pivot-man only turns in his place, without advancing or receding.
381. In the wheels in marching, the pivot takes steps of nine or eleven inches, according as the squad is marching in quick or double quick time, so as to clear the wheeling point, which is necessary, in order that the subdivisions of a column may change direction without losing their distances, as will be explained in the school of the company.
382. The man on the wheeling flank will take the full step of twenty-eight inches, or thirty-three inches, according to the gait.
Wheeling from a halt, or on a fixed pivot.
383. The rank being at a halt, the instructor will place a well—instructed man on the wheeling flank to conduct it, and then command:
1. By squad, right wheel. 2. MARCH.
384. At the second command, the rank will step off with their left foot, turning at the same time the head a little to the left, the eyes fixed on the line of the eyes of the men to their left; the pivot-man will merely mark time in gradually turning his body, in order to conform himself to the movement of the marching flank; the man who conducts this flank will take steps of twenty-eight inches, and from the first stop advance a little the left shoulder, cast his eyes from time to time along the rank, and feel constantly the elbow of the next man lightly, but never push him.
385. The other man will feel lightly the elbow of the next man towards the pivot, resist pressure coming from the opposite side, and each will conform himself to the marching flank—shortening his step according to his approximation to the pivot.
386. The instructor will make the rank wheel round the circle once or twice before halting, in order to cause the principles to be the better understood, and he will be watchful that the centre does not break.
387. He will cause the wheel to the left to be executed according to the same principles.
388. When the instructor shall wish to arrest the wheel, he will command:
1. Squad. 2. HALT.
389. At the second command, the rank will halt, and no man stir. The instructor, going to the flank opposite the pivot, will place the two outer men of that flank in the direction he may wish to give to the rank, without however displacing the pivot, who will conform the line of his shoulders to this direction. The instructor will take care to have between these two men, and the pivot, only the space necessary to contain the other men. He will then command:
Left (or right)—DRESS.
390. At this, the rank will place itself on the alignment of the two men established as the basis, in conformity with the principles prescribed.
391. The instructor will next command:
which will be executed as prescribed, No. 314.
Remarks on the principles of the wheel from a halt.
392. Turn a little the head towards the marching flank, and fix the eyes on the line of the eyes of the men who are on that side;
Because, otherwise, it would be impossible for each man to regulate the length of his step so as to conform his own movement to that of the marching flank.
Touch lightly the elbow of the next man towards the pivot;
In order that the files may not open out in the wheel.
Resist pressure that comes from the side of the marching flank;
Because, if this principle be neglected, the pivot, which ought to be a fixed point, in wheels from a halt, might be pushed out of its place by pressure.
Wheeling in marching, or on a movable pivot.
393. When the recruits have been taught to execute well the wheel from a halt, they will be taught to wheel in marching.
394. To this end, the rank being in march, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to change direction to the reverse flank (to the side opposite to the guide or pivot flank,) he will command:
1. Right (or left) wheel. 2. MARCH.
395. The first command will be given when the rank is yet four paces from the wheeling point.
396. At the second command, the wheel will be executed in the same manner as from a halt, except that the touch of the elbow will remain towards the marching flank (or side of the guide) instead of the side of the actual pivot; that the pivot-man, instead of merely turning in his place, will conform himself to the movement of the marching flank, feel lightly the elbow of the next man, take steps of full nine inches, and thus gain ground forward in describing a small curve so as to clear the point of the wheel. The middle of the rank will bend slightly to the rear. As soon as the movement shall commence, the man who conducts the marching flank will cast his eyes on the ground over which he will have to pass.
397. The wheel being ended, the instructor will command:
1. Forward. 2. MARCH.
398. The first command will be pronounced when four paces are yet required to complete the change of direction.
399. At the command, march, which will be given at the instant of completing the wheel, the man who conducts the marching flank will direct himself straight forward; the pivot-man and all the rank will retake the step of twenty-eight inches, and bring the head direct to the front.
Turning, or change of direction to the side of the guide.
400. The change of direction to the side of the guide, in marching, will be executed as follows: The instructor will command:
1. Left (or right) turn. 2. MARCH.
401. The first command will be given when the rank is yet four paces from the turning point.
402. At the command, march, to be pronounced at the instant the rank ought to turn, the guide will face to the left (or right) in marching, and move forward in the new direction without slackening or quickening the cadence, and without shortening or lengthening the step. The whole rank will promptly conform itself to the new direction; to effect which, each man will advance the shoulder opposite to the guide, take the double quick step, to carry himself in the new direction, turn the head and eyes to the side of the guide, and retake the touch of the elbow on that side, in placing himself on the alignment of the guide, from whom he will take the step, and then resume the direct position of the head. Each man will. thus arrive successively on the alignment.
Wheeling and changing direction to the side of the guide, in double quick time.
403. When the recruits comprehend and execute well, in quick time, the wheels at a halt and in marching, and the change of direction to the side of the guide, the instructor will cause the same movements to be repeated in double quick time.
404. These various movements will be executed by the same commands and according to the same principles as in quick time, except that the command, double quick, will precede that of, march. In wheeling while marching, the pivot-man will take steps of eleven inches, and in the changes of direction to the side of the guide, the men on the side opposite the guide must increase the gait in order to bring themselves into line.
405. The instructor, in order not to fatigue the recruits, and not to divide their attention, will cause them to execute the several movements of which this lesson is composed, first without arms, and next, after the mechanism be well comprehended, with arms.
Long marches in double quick time and the run.
406. The instructor will cause to be resumed the exercises in double quick time and the run, with arms and knapsacks.
407. He will cause long marches to be executed in double quick time, both by the front and by the flank, and by constant practice will lead the men to pass over a distance of five miles in sixty minutes. The pieces will be carried on either shoulder, and sometimes at a trail.
408. He will also exercise them in long marches.
409. The run, in actual service, will only be resorted to when it may be highly important to reach a given point with great promptitude.
The men being at order arms, the instructor will command:
410. At this command, number two of the front rank will pass his piece before him, seize it with the left hand about the middle band; slope it across the body, barrel to the rear, the butt three inches above the right toe of the man on his left, muzzle six inches to the right of his right shoulder.
411. Number two of the rear rank will turn his piece, lock square to the front, and pass it to his front rank man, who will seize it with his right hand about the middle band and incline it forward, resting the neck of the bayonet on that of his own bayonet and close to the blade. Number one of the front rank will turn the barrel of his piece square to the front, slope it across the body, place the neck of his bayonet, above the necks, and between the blades of the other two bayonets, holding the piece with the right hand at the middle band, the butt three inches form the ground at his right toe.
412. Number two of the front rank will throw the butt of the rear rank man's piece about thirty inches to the front, at the same time resting the butt of his own piece on the ground on the left, and a little in rear of his left toe. At the same instant, number one of the front rank will rest the butt of his piece on the ground, a little in front of his right toe. Number one of the rear rank will incline his piece on the stack thus formed.
413. The men of both ranks having taken the position of the soldier without arms, the instructor will command:
1. Break ranks. 2. MARCH.
To resume arms.
414. Both ranks being re-formed in rear of their stacks, the instructor will command:
415. At this command, number one of the rear rank will retake his piece. Number two of the front rank will seize his own piece with the left hand at the middle band, and his rear rank man's piece in like manner with his right hand; and number one of the front rank will seize his piece with his right hand in the same manner. These two men will raise the stack, bring the butts together and disengage the bayonets. Number two of the rear rank will receive his piece from his front rank man, and all will resume the position of order arms.
END OF THE SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.